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Ballesteros, D., Malard, A., Jeannin, P. Y., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., García-Sansegundo, J., Meléndez-Asensio, M., et al. (2015). KARSYS hydrogeological 3D modeling of alpine karst aquifers developed into geological complex areas: Picos de Europa National Park (Spain). Environmental Earth Sciences, , DOI 10.1007/s12665–015.
Résumé: Karst aquifers are valuable groundwater resources whose management requires the use of functioning hydrogeological models. The KARSYS approach provides an explicit 3D conceptual model of the geometry and the functioning of karst aquifers that has been successfully applied in Swiss and Slovenian aquifers. In this work, KARSYS is applied in a complex geological area: the Picos de Europa National Park (Spain). The hydrogeological 3D model (500 km2) shows an alpine karst aquifer compartmentalized into 32 groundwater bodies dammed up by subvertical barriers creating elevated saturated zones (water tables at 1153 m asl) and lower ones (water tables at 145 m asl). The recharge is through 18 spring catchment areas. The groundwater flows to the saturated zones pass through vertical to inclined trajectories, and phreatic flows are oriented toward NW, NE and N. KARSYS can be applied to any geologically complex area at a regional scale, although the geological structure should be simplified and the precision in some places is low.
Ballesteros, D., Malard, A., Jeannin, P. Y., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., García-Sansegundo, J., Meléndez-Asensio, M., et al. (2015). Influence of the rivers on speleogenesis combining KARSYS approach and cave levels. Picos de Europa, Spain. In Hydrogeological and environmental investigations in karst systems. Environmental Earth Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 599–607). Springer.
Résumé: The influence of rivers on speleogenesis is studied analyzing the cave
levels located in the underground drainage areas related to two fluvial basins. Cave
levels are analyzed through their vertical distribution profiles. The underground
limits of the fluvial basins are defined using a 3D geometric model of the karst
aquifer established according to the KARSYS approach. The aim of this work is to
analyze the influence of the rivers on cave evolution using cave morphology. The
study area corresponds to the Western and Central massifs of Picos de Europa
(Northern Spain), with 214 km of cave conduits up to 1.6 km vertical range. As a
result, we established two sequences of development of the cave levels related to
the differences of the incision rate of the Cares and Dobra Rivers, and the partial
capture of the Western Massif by the Cares River.